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January,27 2022

Gamera 4: Truth VHS Cover

VHS (buoy H. S., Video Home System: video home system), Japan Victor (currently, JVC Kenwood ) of 1976 was developed (1976) home video in the standard, the company's registered trademark ( Japan No. 1399408, etc.)  .

Ultra Q The Movie: Legend of the Stars VHS Cover

Initially, it was an abbreviation for Vertical Helical Scan, which expresses the recording method, but it was later redefined as an abbreviation for Video Home System .

Overview[]

A feature of VHS is that it does not change the video standard in principle, and tapes recorded at the time of release can be played on the latest models currently in circulation. The tape was a 1/2 inch wide cassette type with a standard recording time of 2 hours. This shape is now commonplace, but the VTR at the time of development was flooded with incompatible standards such as cartridge types with only one tape reel , tape widths and cassette sizes. Was.

As a result of the progress of tape lengthening due to technological progress, 240 minutes is the longest now when using DF480. In addition, we are continuing to improve without significantly deviating from the standard range, HQ and Hi-Fi audio compatible, video camera standard VHS-C , high - quality model S-VHS with horizontal resolution of 400 or more and its video camera standard S-VHS-C , satellite PCM digital audio broadcasting can record without deteriorating S-VHS DA (DigitalAudio), an analog high-definition of W-VHS , digital broadcast corresponding D-VHS is widely deployed. Playback of VHS tapes is basically supported in all standards. After the appearance of S-VHS, the conventional VHS may be called " normal VHS " or "conventional VHS" for identification . In addition, D-VHS , which is a higher standard for digital recording, enables non-deterioration recording of terrestrial digital broadcasting , BS digital broadcasting , CS digital broadcasting, etc.

As a result of competition with various media such as beta , 8mm , LD and VHD , it has become the de facto standard for home video . In particular, before the spread of DVD-Video, the term "video" usually refers to VHS, and related companies also used the word "video" to mean VHS in product descriptions ("Video version and DVD". The contents of the edition are the same, "or the VHS deck is referred to as the" video deck. "

It is said that the number of VHS hardware spread worldwide is more than 900 million, and the number of tapes is estimated to be more than 30 billion. Honor this thing, from the VHS standard announcement of the 30th anniversary of 2006 to (2006) is IEEE "Development of VHS by as a" historic achievement that contributed to the development of electrical and electronic technology field, " IEEE Milestone is certified in" was  .

History[]

Starting with Ampex 's huge commercial 2-inch VTR developed in 1956 (Showa 31), a rotating 2-head helical scan system that can record the NTSC system as it is was developed. Toshiba applied for a basic patent for helical scan technology in 1955 (Showa 30). In 1959 (Showa 34), Toshiba announced a helical scan system VTR for broadcasting  . The rotating 2-head helical scan was developed by JVC in the same year. Since then, each company has released a relatively compact open reel type VTR, but the method was different for each company and no unified standard was established.

Matsushita Electric Industrial , JVC, and Sony have agreed on a unified standard ( U-matic ) for video recorders (VCRs) in which tapes are stored in cassettes, with a view to household VTRs . Although it was released, it was expensive, and as with the open reel type, its main sales destinations were corporate training applications, educational institutions, and pay broadcasting in inns and hotels.

Aiming for the era when household VTR equipment will become widespread in earnest, Sony called on each company to unify the standards, and Betamax, which was developed and released in advance, was developed with the aim of downsizing the U-matic . preferentially the size of the cassette from the extension, with up to 60 minutes of recording time while developed to ensure the same operability and U standards, Victor consumer emphasis utility as Applications, cassette Developed a basic standard with a maximum recording time of 120 minutes, knowing that it will be slightly larger. In addition, the mechanical structure was developed and released with the concept of a household VTR clarified, aiming for a structure that is more suitable for mass production without being bound by the U standard .

It was announced, released earlier in the Sony Betamax (Unit 1, SL-6300), 1975 years (1975) April 16 announcement, the same year on May 10 have been released on.

Victor requested the parent company Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. (currently Panasonic ) to participate in the VHS system, but in 1973 (Showa 48), it released an autovision system home VTR device, but failed  , 1974 (Showa 49) -In 1975 (Showa 50), the VX type deck developed by the subsidiary Matsushita Toshi Denshi Kogyo (currently PHC ) was sold, and there are also internal opinions supporting the beta method. Matsushita's attitude was unclear due to internal circumstances, such as the fact that there were several factors.

In the second episode of NHK General TV " Project X ~ Challengers ~ ", Konosuke Matsushita visited the VHS prototype at the Victor Yokohama Factory on September 3, 1975, saying, "Betamax is a product with a perfect score of 100 points. However, this VHS is 150 points. "" Yeah, you made it, "he said, with a photo of Konosuke Matsushita looking into the prototype. According to Victor's in-house newsletter [ when? ] , Mr. Masahiko Hirata (later Vice President of Matsushita Electric) was seconded to JVC at that time, and information on the end of VHS development was brought to Matsushita Electric for video development. Mr. Takahashi, who was in the center, visited Victor to see the VHS prototype, followed by Mr. Konosuke Matsushita, and "Project X ~ Challengers ~" reports that Matsushita Electric has already adopted VHS before the release of the first VHS. It is said that it was decided.

Shizuo Takano, who was later called the "father of VHS," appealed directly to Konosuke Matsushita . At the end of 1976 (Showa 51), Konosuke Matsushita and employees of Matsushita, Sony, and Victor attended a meeting (direct confrontation) to compare the video decks of both companies at the Matsushita Electric Headquarters. At that seat, Konosuke said, "Beta is 100 points (full score), but VHS is 150 points. Since the number of parts is small (VHS) can be made cheaply, it is advantageous for latecomers." Since the Ministry of International Trade and Industry was reluctant to divide the standard, it was proposed to unify the standard with the new standard, but both companies became illusory because they did not want to withdraw their own standard, and Matsushita decided to participate in the VHS method. It was. In addition to the reasons mentioned above, Konosuke's deciding factor in choosing VHS was that the VHS deck was lighter. "It must wait for the delivery of the dealer that it is beta, VHS is barely take home in weight, buyers immediately seen brought back to yourself at home," was the Konosuke seems to criteria such as  . JVC HR-3300U VIDSTAR – HR-3300 for the United States. It is almost the same as the Japanese model, but the name "Victor" was used for the logo, and "VIDSTAR" was not used. On October 31, 1976 (Showa 51) , JVC released the first VHS video deck (product number: HR-3300), and the list price was 256,000 yen at that time. A dedicated timer with a built-in clock that can record an answering machine is sold separately for 10,000 yen, and the VHS recording tape was initially 6000 yen for 120 minutes. Initially , Sharp and Mitsubishi Electric also released the first JVC unit on an OEM basis. The following year, in 1977 (Showa 52), JVC started using the current logo , so the lot produced in the first half of the HR-3300, the first VHS machine, has been used since before the war (the typeface is slightly different). It was the only deck with the old logo (" V ICTOR " logo). The late production was the current logo.

In 1977 (Showa 52), Matsushita Electric Industrial released the popular VHS video deck "National Mac Road ", which became a trigger for VHS hits.

In order to meet the needs of users of long-time recording, double mode (LP) for the US market was introduced in 1977 (Showa 52), and triple mode (LP) was used for devices in Japan in 1979 (Showa 54). EP) was developed and installed in a wide range of models. In addition, although it is non-standard, there are models that can record two programs at the same time in standard mode, and various proposals were made by manufacturers during the VTR popularization period. After that, a 5x mode was also developed and installed in some models.

According to Akio Tanii (former president), who became the director of the video division of Matsushita Electric in 1972, the biggest peak in the spread of VHS was the partnership with RCA in February 1977 . Conditionally, it was also required to double the recording time to 4 hours by the time of shipment in August, which was achieved by technical teams such as Tsuzo Murase (former Vice President of Matsushita Electric)  . Matsushita Electric has developed a VHS deck with a double (LP) mode in response to a request from the OEM-supplied American RCA to require a longer recording time for recording American football . It was supplied by OEM, but it was not approved by JVC. JVC was angry at Matsushita Electric's selfish behavior because the image quality and sound quality were lower than the VHS standard (SP) mode, and it was also out of compatibility with the VHS standard. He strongly requested Matsushita Electric not to sell it in Japan. For VHS camp companies in Japan, 2 hours in standard (SP) mode is enough, and there is a demand for long-time recording like American football in Japan to adopt double (LP) mode of 4-hour recording. It was negative because it wasn't there at the time, and there was no move to adopt it because it was out of compatibility with the VHS standard .

Initially, VHS audio tracks were recorded in monaural with a fixed head in the corner of the tape , but the width was narrower than the compact cassette and the tape speed was 3/4. In the 3x mode, the tape speed becomes 1/3 of the standard mode, and the deterioration of the S / N ratio ( increase in hiss noise ) and the deterioration of the frequency characteristics become remarkable. Incidentally wow and flutter tape traveling in the video had been strictly controlled in order to become a synchronization disturbance. Since the audio track was converted to stereo in the high-end model , each manufacturer adopted the Dolby noise reduction system (Dolby B), dbx, and other audio signal compression / decompression processing technologies in order to improve the sound quality as much as possible. Although some improvement was seen in the deterioration of the / N ratio, it was not possible to cope with the frequency characteristics. If you don't currently have a deck that can play stereo with the normal fixed head of that era, it is naturally impossible to listen to VHS tapes recorded in stereo with normal audio in stereo. A further problem is when recording Western movies in two languages ​​on a normal audio track, and Japanese and foreign languages ​​are played back at the same time. As a matter of course, adjusting the left-right balance of the speaker does not solve the problem.

1983 (Showa 58) In March 1983, three photographs of Akio Tanii, Shizuo Takano, and RCA Vice President Jack Sorter graced the cover of the world's largest international weekly magazine " Time " at that time.

In April 1983 , Sony released the "SL-HF77," which uses a stereo Hi-Fi audio recording system (beta Hi-Fi), for the first time in the world as a 1/2-inch home video. Beta Hi-Fi has lost compatibility in the strict sense with the conventional beta machine due to the carrier shift of the luminance signal from 4.4MHz to 4.8MHz to the high range, but the tape recorded with beta Hi-Fi is conventional. Playing it on a beta machine didn't cause much of a problem.

In response to the beta camp's conversion to Hi-Fi, in May 1983, Matsushita Electric equipped a dedicated audio head, used deep band recording on magnetic material, and used Hi-Fi stereo compatible with normal VHS. Released "NV-800" with added audio function. This feature has been adopted as the VHS Hi-Fi stereo standard. Matsushita's proprietary VHS Hi-Fi machine "NV-800" used dbx for signal processing of Hi-Fi audio tracks . Dbx, Upon the VHS standard the Hi-Fi system with a deep band recording to the magnetic body of the "NV-800" is adopted by the Hi-Fi audio Dolby 's license for a fee avoidance, does not conflict with the two companies' patent Signal processing technology was developed and adopted. Therefore, if you play a videocassette recorded with "NV-800" on an official VHS Hi-Fi standard VCR released after Victor "HR-D725", it is strictly compatible with the official VHS Hi-Fi standard. Since there is no nature, the sound may be slightly distorted.

In the fall of 1983, JVC released the first "HR-D725" compatible with the official VHS Hi-Fi standard. Models such as this D725 were also capable of recording and playback using the normal audio method described above, and were also compatible with Dolby B. The dynamic range was initially 80 dB or more, and improved to 90 dB or more for models after 1986 (Showa 61). The frequency response is 20-20,000 Hz  .

Along with this, non-Hi-Fi stereo equipment was discontinued in the 1980s . Non-Hi-Fi monaural VCRs manufactured by domestic manufacturers were discontinued in the latter half of the 1990s as a single unit [ citation needed ] . Televideo continued to produce non-Hi-Fi machines for some time, but ended in the early 2000s.

1992 ( March when Shizuo Takano to 4 years) has died at 68 years old, spread the number of VHS video deck was 3.7 million units.

In 2008 (Heisei 20), JVC's first VHS deck "HR-3300" was registered in No. 0020 of the Important Science and Technology History Material (commonly known as Future Technology Heritage) set by the National Museum of Nature and Science .

In 2016 ( 2016 ), Funai Electric ( developed as the " DX BROADTEC " brand at that time in Japan ) ended production of VHS video tape recorders as of the end of July  . Multiple manufacturers continue to produce and sell VHS videotapes. The main reason is that it is often used for security cameras such as editing and playback in ordinary households and retail mass retailers, and it is to meet the needs of such customers.

Format War with Betamax[]

VHS was in the limelight as a competing standard for home video Betamax developed and released by Sony in 1975 (Showa 50) . Lasted about 10 years, the format battle ( video war VHS survived and won the). There are several factors.

The VHS camp focused on family formation . This was successful, and we acquired a large number of manufacturers that adopted VHS, and established a system to jointly enhance the standards. In addition, by acquiring a home appliance maker, the sales network could be used. In particular , it is significant that Matsushita Electric Industrial was drawn into the group. The Betamax camp also had Toshiba, which has a home appliance sales network, but it is said that the scale and precision of Matsushita's sales network had a major impact.

In addition, VHS has a structure suitable for mass production, and was able to realize a strategic product lineup such as the introduction of low-priced machines during the popularization period  . The beta used the same U-loading method as the U-matic, while the VHS adopted the M-loading, which was difficult to develop but had a small number of parts and was easy to produce. Factors include the fact that the recording time was set to a practical 2 hours from the beginning and succeeded in increasing the time thereafter, and that it succeeded in acquiring OEM supply destinations in the European and US markets  . ..

There was also a failure of the advertising strategy by Sony, the chief beta standard. 1984 (1984) January 25, four days from, Sony posted an advertisement in a row in the major newspapers, "become not Betamax?" Heading "The Sonsuru and buy a Betamax?" "Beta What will happen to Max in the future? ”, And on the final day, it was a development that concluded with“ Betamax becoming more and more interesting! ”  . This was a paradoxical approach to announcing new products at the time, but it was not understood by consumers and was short-circuited as "end of beta", which accelerated the departure from beta .

VHS is a design standard that places the highest priority on long-term durability and playback compatibility rather than high image quality, and created the rental video market and cell video market. In addition, with the funding of affiliated companies, abundant titles such as movies and AV works were made, and in the early days when there was no cell video software store, they were sold at an antenna shop built near a major electronics store .

In 1980, VHS exceeded the beta share of video software. Until around 1989 (Heisei 1), manufacturers sold VHS and beta together (some manufacturers also supplied 8mm video software), but the beta family collapsed and each company shifted to VHS. Sony also began selling VHS / Beta / 8mm video decks together in 1988 (1988), and the beta gradually lost its market share, so video software makers will release video software only on VHS. Now, VHS has become the standard at rental video stores. VHS and S-VHS have become the mainstream video decks at home electronics mass retailers. Beta users who have asked for more high-quality to the border before and after beta software supply discontinuation laser disc went flows to the (LD).

Considering the playback compatibility of cell video and rental video software, the release of VHS video decks of each company's specifications was basically not allowed, but in 1996 Sharp installed a double tuner and recorded two programs at the same time. Released "VC-BF80" that supports playback. Simultaneous two-program recording / playback is not standardized on the VHS system and is not compatible with the VHS system, and tapes recorded on that model could not be played on other companies' VHS models, including those made by Sharp. .. VHS recording / playback is possible even on S-VHS-equipped machines.

In beta, βI / βIs (5.6 MHz Hi-Band) / βIsSHB (6.0 MHz Hi-Band) / βII (X2) / βIII modes, Hi-BandBeta (5.6 MHz / βII / βIII), BetaHi-Fi, ED- There were standards such as Beta, but even with VHS, SP (standard), LP (2x / Japanese domestic specifications only support playback), EP (3x), 5x each mode, VHS-C, VHSHi-Fi, S -VHS, S-VHS-C, S-VHS-ET, S-VHSDigitalAudio, W-VHS, D-VHS are crowded, and both VHS and beta will be later in the earliest standard mode / βI mode dedicated model etc. There was an environment in which tapes recorded in the developed long-time mode and high-quality / high-quality sound standards could not be played.

In the 1980s, Sony developed a method for ultra-high-speed magnetic transfer printing of a master of all-metal tape with strong magnetic holding power on slave tape using high-grade tape in beta video software, but in VHS, high-speed magnetic transfer Due to the delay in the technical development of the printing method itself, software production work at a constant speed was forced, and as a result, the price of video software was higher than that of video discs such as LD and VHD. In the 1990s, OTARI developed the "T-710 Video Duplicator" using the TMD high-speed thermal transfer method, which realized high-speed printing at 300x speed in VHS / SP (standard) mode, speeding up software manufacturing, and VHS. Contributed to lowering the price of video software  .

When the VHS-Beta war broke out, JVC was OEM- supplied to manufacturers in the VHS family who could not yet manufacture VHS decks due to technical issues and production capacity . At times, it prioritized production for OEM supply over its own brand. It is said that it was intended to give the impression that VHS is the majority, as well as being able to utilize the sales network of other companies by selling it from various manufacturers. In addition, Sony also supplied its own products on an OEM basis before the production system of each beta family company was set up.

Sony is said to have lost in the VHS-Beta war, but Sony's patents are also used in the technology used in VHS, so there was considerable license income. This is related to the cross-licensing agreement signed by Sony / JVC / Matsushita Electric when the U standard was formulated in 1969 (Showa 44) .

Since Sony possessed a large number of VTR patented technologies including tape loading technology, VHS camp companies such as Hitachi, Mitsubishi Electric, Sharp, and Akai Electric, which did not have a cross license contract with Sony, When the VHS VCR was launched, it had to sign a patent agreement with Sony . In addition, Sony is almost in control of the patented technology related to about 28,000 video cassette tapes, including magnetic materials, and Matsushita Electric and JVC, which have signed a cross-license agreement with Sony, have their own video cassettes when the VHS system was first released. Since it did not own a tape production facility, it was surpassed by OEM supply from TDK, Fujifilm, Sumitomo 3M, etc. Hitachi, Ltd., which has signed a patent usage contract with Sony, released VHS video cassette tapes supplied by Hitachi Maxell on an OEM basis. In 1978 (Showa 53), Sony decided to publish patents to tape makers that did not have a cross-licensing contract for a fee, so tape makers could sell VHS and Beta video cassette tapes on their own. was  .

At the end of the video war, there were calls from the market for Sony VHS VCRs. This was one of the reasons Sony entered the VHS system, and it changed its policy to become a "comprehensive manufacturer of VTR" with a full lineup of VHS, beta, and 8mm. When Sony entered the VHS system in 1988 (Showa 63), there were no barriers. Since we had a cross-licensing agreement with Matsushita Electric and JVC, we didn't even need to get consent from Matsushita Electric and JVC to release VHS when we entered VHS. As mentioned above, VHS was a method that adopted many of Sony's patented technologies. In addition, Aiwa (the first corporation), which was a subsidiary of Sony at that time , entered VHS ahead of the parent company.

Declining demand for VHS[]

In the "digital era" and " high-definition era" such as the spread of DVDs , hard disk recorders and personal computers , the advent of high-definition television broadcasting and Blu-ray Discs , and the start of digital television broadcasting in many countries in the 21st century , VHS cassettes and VHS single machines that could not be supported gradually became unsold  . As for multifunction devices with digital recorders, the emphasis has shifted to digitizing past libraries, and the number of types that cannot record TV programs has increased.

In addition, since it is a tape, both sound and image quality are poor, and it is recognized that a disc is better because it is troublesome to cue and rewind , and the demand for VHS has been declining since around 2008. In terms of image quality, S-VHS (high-quality version VHS) was released in 1987, and D-VHS (VHS compatible with digital recording) was released in 1999, but the deck is expensive, and D-VHS has been released so far. without wasting the assets of VHS that has been stored, the future of digital , but was a product that corresponds to, in the same year Pioneer is DVD recorder D-VHS by announced that much, did not spread.

Although it was also used for video judgment , there were some cases where accurate judgment could not be made because the horizontal resolution was 240 lines, which is lower than 330 lines for analog TV broadcasting. 2012 May 19 in Yokohama Stadium was held in Yokohama DeNA Bay Stars vs. Chiba Lotte Marines in, Alex Ramirez of homers household VHS deck is used to determine the properties of the fly ball, know that in the video is a home run In some cases, it was determined to be a foul because it was not .

In combination with this situation, JVC announced on May 30, 2007 (Heisei 19) that it would withdraw from the VHS video business and liquidate it as a business restructuring measure due to poor management . 2008 (2008) January 15, the S-VHS stand-alone machine to announced that it has completed all models production  , the same year on October 27 to the end of the production of the VHS system stand-alone machine.

Due to the withdrawal of JVC, only Funai Electric (hereinafter referred to as Funai) was the only manufacturer of VHS video units in Japan , but Funai also withdrew completely  . Since then, it has been developed as a multifunction device such as DVD and HDD, but it has been significantly reduced  .

With a view to the complete digitalization of TVs, each company has shifted its main sales focus to Blu-ray recorders that also use HDDs , and the product lineup has continued to shrink. Along with this, some businesses are withdrawing from videotapes for recording, and S-VHS tapes, which are still being manufactured as a leading manufacturer, have already been discontinued, and at the end of December 2014, Hitachi Maxell (currently, Maxell ) is also discontinued. Production of TDK (← Imation 's TDK Life on Record brand) was discontinued in February 2015, and recording tapes were out of stock in June 2015.

2010s well into the, of VHS integrated DVD recorder to no BD recorder but have been produced, each company with 2011, became a production completed by the end of. Until the end of 2011, Panasonic 's DIGA "DMR-XP25V" (manufactured by Panasonic) and Toshiba "D-VDR9K" (Funai's OEM ) were on sale except for Funai and its subsidiary DX Antenna at that time. )Met. 2012 February 10, Panasonic is "completely exit the domestic production in Japan of the VHS deck as far as 2011 years," was the official announcement to the effect that  .

The VHS decks (recording / playback machines / playback-only machines) that were distributed as new products as of April 2016 are as follows, and all models are OEMs of Funai. Since there are certain needs and price competition does not occur, there was a situation where it would be profitable to continue sales, but at the end of July of the same year it became difficult to procure parts, so we had to give up production continuation, and all The model has been discontinued  .

DXR170V (VHS integrated DVD recorder)
[1]It was released from DX Antenna (DX BROADTEC) on July 1, 2014 .
2012 successor in May "to meet the needs of our customers are now released!" And was released "DXR160V".
RVP-100 (Playback-only VHS player)
[2]It was released by Doshisha ( SANSUI brand ) in mid- December 2013 .[3] (buoy H. S., Video Home System: video home system), [4] (buoy H. S., Video Home System: video home system), 
It is a "playback-only" VHS machine that supports 4-head Hi-Fi audio and is equipped with digital tracking , and was commercialized for the purpose of contributing to the conversion of VHS assets that sleep at home to DVD, BD, and data .  (buoy H. S., Video Home System: video home system), 
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